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Literature Review

Chicago Notes-Bibliography (Turabian) Format

The discipline of History uses Chicago style for citing sources.  Use the format for footnotes/endnotes, not parenthetical citations.  

Use the N format for footnotes/endnotes, and B for a bibliographic entry.  Some of the major differences between the formats are:

  • Indentation: The first line of a footnote is indented, while subsequent lines are not.  Conversely, the first line of a bibliographic citation is not indented, while subsequent lines are.
  • Name Order: Footnotes list author as first name last name, whereas bibliographic citations list author as last name, first name.
  • Punctuation: Footnotes use more commas and bibliographic citations use more periods.  

The following examples of the most commons types of citations are taken/adapted directly from the 16th edition of the Chicago manual.  For additional examples, consult chapter 14 (pages 653-784) or the online Chicago Quick Guide.